Basic of Embedded System

In this tutorial we are going to learn about Basic of Embedded System

A system having specific hardware with specific software and perform a specific task is called as a embedded system. OR Embedded System can be defined as a computing device that does a specific focused job.

Example of Embedded System:

  • Personal digital assistant (PDA)
  • Printer
  • Automobile: Engine, breaks, dash, etc.
  • Television
  • Household application
  • PC keyboard.
  • Battery Charger
  • Digital Camera
  • Washing Machines
  • Auto – focus camera

Characteristics of an Embedded System:

  • Single functioned executes a single program, repeatedly.
  • low cost, low power, small, fast etc.
  • Reactive and real time, continually reacts to changes in the system’s environment.
  • Real time operation
  • Low power consumption
  • Restricted memory
  • Application dependant processor and not general purpose processor which we find in computers
  • Sophisticated functionality

Design Challenge – Optimization

Common metrics

  • Unit Cost – Monetary cost of manufacturing each copy of the system, excluding NRE cost.
  • NRE Cost: (Non – Recurring engineering cost) : One time monetary cost of designing the system.
  • Size: Physical space required by the system.
  • Performance: Execution time of the system.
  • Flexibility: Ability to change the functionality of the system without incurring heavy NRE cost.
  • Time to prototype – Time required to build a working version of the system.
  • Time to market – Time required to develop a system to the point that it can be released and sold to costumer. Time required developing a product to the time it would be sold to costumers.
  • Maintainability – Ability to modify the system after its initial release, correctness, safety, etc.

Advantage & Disadvantage of an Embedded System:

Advantage –

  • Easily Customizable
  • Low power consumption
  • Low cost
  • Enhanced performance

Disadvantage –

  • High development effort
  • Larger time to market
  • Unmanageable heat loss
  • Lower mean time between failure

Features of an Embedded System:

  • Small set of functions
  • Designed for low power dissipation
  • Has limited memory and limited number of peripheral
  • Applications are not alterable by the user
  • Many of them are not accessible directly
  • Need to be highly reliable
  • Need to operate with time constraints

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