IC (Integrated Circuit ) – It is Also called microelectronic circuit ,microchip , or chip, an assembly of electronic components, fabricated as a single unit , in which miniaturized active device (e.g., transistors and diodes) and passive device (e.g., capacitors and resistor )and their interconnections are built up on a thinIC358-The LM358 IC is a great ,low power and easy to use dual channel op-amp IC. It is designed and introduced by national semiconductor. It consists of two internally frequency compensated, high gain, and independent op-amps. This IC designed specially to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. The LM358 IC is available in a chip sized package and applications of this op-amp include conventional op-amp circuits DC gain blocks and transducer amplifiers LM358 IC is a good standard operational amplifier and it is suitable for your needs. It can handle 3-32v DC supply & source up to 20 mA per channel. This op-amp is apt, if you want to operate two separate op-amps for a single power supply. It’s available in an 8-pin DIP package.
IC555– The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications .The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide two (556) or four (558) timing circuits in one package.
IC4017–Most of us are more comfortable with 1,2,3,4,…………rather then 001, 010, 011, 100. We mean to say that we will need a decimal coded output in many cases rather than a raw binary output in many cases rather than raw binary outputs. We have many counter ICs available but most of them produce binary data as an output. We will again need to process that output by using decoders or any other circuitry to make it usable for our application in most of the cases.
Let us now introduce you a new IC named IC 4017.It is a CMOS decade counter cum decoder circuit which can work out of the box for most of our low range counting applications. It can count from zero to ten and its outputs are decoded. This saves a lot of board space and time required to build our circuits when our application demands using a counter followed by a decoder IC This IC also simplifies the design and makes debugging easy.
IC UM66–UM66 is a melody generating IC commonly used in calling bell, phone, toys, musical bell in doors, home security alarm systems, burglar alarms etc. It is three pin IC looks like a transistor. Its first pin is ground, second is VCC and the third is the melody output.
Transistor– A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminal for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor’s terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistor is packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.
Transistor BC547 – BC547 is an NPN bipolar junction transistor. A transistor, stands for transfer of resistance, is commonly used to amplify current. A small current at its base controls a larger current at collector & emitter terminals. …… its equivalent transistors are BC548 and BC549.
Transistor BC548–The BC548 is a general-purpose NPN bipolar junction transistor commonly used in European and American electronic equipment. It is notably often the first type of bipolar transistor hobbyist’s encounter and is often featured in designs in hobby electronics magazines where a general purpose transistor is required.
Transistor BC557–BC577 is a PNP transistor hence the collector and emitter will be closed (forward biased) when the base pin is held at ground and will be opened (Reversed biased) when a signal is provided to base pin.
Transistor BC558–BC558 is a general purpose PNP transistor. It is used in switching and amplifier applications. The DC current gain varies in range 110 to 800. …for switching applications, transistor is biased so that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base.