In this tutorial, we are going to learn about Best Tutorial for Microcontrollers & Microprocessor
- A microcontroller is an integrated circuit that is programmed to do a specific task.
- Microcontrollers are really just “mini – computers”.
Application of Microcontrollers-
- Microcontrollers are hidden in tons of appliances, gadgets, and other electronics.
Difference between Microcontrollers & Microprocessor-
|Applications||General computing (i.e. Laptops, tables)||Appliances, specialized devices|
|Speed||Very fast||Relatively slow|
|Energy Use||Medium to high||Very low to low|
|Vendors||Intel ,ARM, AMD|
Basic Principles of Operation of Microprocessor-
- Microcontrollers are used for specific applications.
- They do not need to be powerful because most applications only require a clock of a few MHz and
Small amount of storage.
- A microcontroller needs to be programmed to be useful.
- A microcontroller is only as useful as the code written for it. If you wanted to turn on a red light when a
Temperature reached a certain point; the programmer would have to explicitly specify how that will happen
Through his code.
- Code is written for the microcontroller in an integrated development environment, a PC program.
The code is written in a programming language.(e.g. C, BASIC or Assembly).
- The IDE debugs the code for errors, and then compiles it into binary code which the microcontroller
- A programmer (a piece of hardware, not a person) is used to transfer the code from the PC to the microcontroller. The most common type of programmer is an ICSP (In- circuit serial programmer).
The Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)-
- Just about every modern microcontroller contains an ADC (s).
- It converts analog voltage into digital values.
- These digital representations of the signal at hand can be analyzed in code, logged in memory, or used in
- Practically any other way possible.
The Digital to Analog Converter (DAC):
- You guessed it ! Microcontrollers have accompanying DACs.
- It does exactly the opposite function of an ADC. It takes a digital value and converts it into an pseudo-analog voltage.
- It can be used to do an enormous amount of things. One example is to synthesize a waveform. We can create an
audio signal from a microcontroller.
- This is the controller board for a washing machine. If a button is pushed or if a knob is turned, the microcontroller knows
How to react to the event.
- Ex. If “start” is pushed, the microcontroller knows to switch a relay which starts the motor.
- This is the main controller from a Buick Regal.
- This board has several microcontrollers each for a specific task.
- Ex. A microcontroller may handle dashboard controls or it may even control something
More complex like the ignition system.
- Many robots use microcontrollers to allow robots to interact with the real world. If a proximity sensor senses an object near by, the microcontroller will know to unobstructed path.
Microcontroller Packagage for PCB
- DIP (Dual Inline package)Through hole -8 pins, size 9mm x 6mm X 0.15pins/mm2
- SOIC(small Outline IC), Surface Mount -18 pins,11mm x 7mm x 0.23pins/mm2
- QFP(Quad Flat Package )- 32 pins size – 7mm x 7mm x 0.65pins/mm2
- BGA (Ball grid Array),Surface Mount – 100 pins, size – 6mm x 6mm x 2.78pins/mm2