Best Tutorial for Microcontrollers & Microprocessor

In this tutorial, we are going to learn about Best Tutorial for Microcontrollers & Microprocessor


  • A microcontroller is an integrated circuit that is programmed to do a specific task.
  • Microcontrollers are really just “mini – computers”.

Application of Microcontrollers-

  • Microcontrollers are hidden in tons of appliances, gadgets, and other electronics.

Difference between Microcontrollers & Microprocessor-                       

ApplicationsGeneral computing (i.e. Laptops, tables)Appliances, specialized devices
Speed   Very fast  Relatively  slow
External Parts      Many      Few
 Cost      High       Low
 Energy UseMedium to high  Very low to low
Vendors Intel ,ARM, AMD 

Basic Principles of Operation of Microprocessor-

  • Microcontrollers are used for specific applications.
  • They do not need to be powerful because most applications only require a clock of a few MHz and

 Small amount of storage.

  • A microcontroller needs to be programmed to be useful.
  • A microcontroller is only as useful as the code written for it. If you wanted to turn on a red light when a

Temperature reached a certain point; the programmer would have to explicitly specify how that will happen

Through his code.

Microcontroller Programming:

  • Code is written for the microcontroller in an integrated development environment, a PC program.

The code is written in a programming language.(e.g. C, BASIC or Assembly).

  • The IDE debugs the code for errors, and then compiles it into binary code which the microcontroller

Can execute.

  •  A programmer (a piece of hardware, not a person) is used to transfer the code from the PC to the microcontroller. The most common type of programmer is an ICSP (In- circuit serial programmer).

The Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)-

  • Just about every modern microcontroller contains an ADC (s).
  • It converts analog voltage into digital values.
  • These digital representations of the signal at hand can be analyzed in code, logged in memory, or used in
  • Practically any other way possible.

The Digital to Analog Converter (DAC):

  • You guessed it ! Microcontrollers have accompanying DACs.
  • It does exactly the opposite function of an ADC. It takes a digital value and converts it into an pseudo-analog voltage.
  • It can be used to do an enormous amount of things. One example is to synthesize a waveform. We can create an

audio signal from a microcontroller.

Microcontroller Applications:

  • This is the controller board for a washing machine. If a button is pushed or if a knob is turned, the microcontroller knows

How to react to the event.

  • Ex. If “start” is pushed, the microcontroller knows to switch a relay which starts the motor.  
  • This is the main controller from a Buick Regal.
  • This board has several microcontrollers each for a specific task.
  • Ex. A microcontroller may handle dashboard controls or it may even control something

More complex like the ignition system.

  • Many robots use microcontrollers to allow robots to interact with the real world. If a proximity sensor senses an object near by, the microcontroller will know to unobstructed path.

Microcontroller Packagage for PCB

  • DIP (Dual Inline package)Through hole -8 pins, size 9mm x 6mm X 0.15pins/mm2
  • SOIC(small Outline IC), Surface Mount -18 pins,11mm x 7mm x 0.23pins/mm2
  • QFP(Quad Flat Package )- 32 pins size – 7mm x 7mm x 0.65pins/mm2
  • BGA  (Ball grid Array),Surface Mount – 100 pins, size  – 6mm x 6mm x 2.78pins/mm2

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