What is ICs (Integrated circuits)?

In this tutorial we are going to learn about what is ICs (Integrated circuits)?

Commonly known as ICs — these are like social directors for components: They gather lots of other components in a single location TO-92 TO-39 T0-220 Figure 3-5: Common transistor packages. ICs typically contain a number of transistors, resistors, and capacitors connected on a silicon chip to make a functional circuit in one small package. ICs have different types of packages Manufacturers make ICs in many types of packages or containers. The type of package that you use either in a breadboard or a circuit board is a dual inline package (DIP). A DIP is made up of plastic that encapsulates a silicon chip, with a row of metal leads running on either side of the plastic. You insert these leads into the contact holes in a breadboard and connect components on the breadboard with the circuitry on the silicon chip. (See the later section, “Breadboard Basics,” for more about this process.) DIP ICs are identified by the number of leads they have, such as 8-pin DIP, 14-pin DIP, 16-pin DIP, 18-pin DIP, and so on. As per below image for all DIP package of ICs.

When you order ICs, be careful to order an IC in a DIP package. If you obtain an IC in a non-DIP package, such as an SOIC (see the earlier section, “Transistors”), you can try forever, but you will never be able to insert the leads into a board. Many manufacturers use these other ICs with a technique called surface mounting. In this technique, the leads are soldered onto a contact on the surface of a circuit board, not inserted into a hole. If you really need to use an IC that comes only in a surface mount-type package, look for adapters to which you can solder the surface-mount IC and then insert the adapter into your board. Because ICs are simply a collection of components (such as transistors, resistors, and capacitors) stuffed in miniature onto a silicon chip, each type of IC can perform a different function. That function depends on how many of each component is placed on the chip and how they are wired together. For SMD package such as 8-pin SOIC, 14-pin SOIC, 16-pin SOIC, 18-pin SOIC, and so on., As per below image for SMD ICs package .

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