What is Microprocessor & Its Advantage?

In this tutorial we are going to learn about what is Microprocessor & Its Classifications?

Microprocessor is programmable multipurpose silicon chip, clock driven, register based, accepts binary data as input and provides output and It is also called CPU.

How Does a Microprocessor Work?

A processor is the brain of a computer which basically consists of arithmetical and logical unit (ALU) control unit and register array as the name indicates ALU performs all arithmetic and logical operations on the data received from input devices or memory register array consists of a series of registers like accumulator (A) ,B , C, D etc which work as  fast access memory locations for processing data as the name indicates , control unit controls the flow of instructions and data throughout the system

Generally a microprocessor takes input from input devices process it as per instructions given in the memory and produces output.

Advantages of a Microprocessor

  • Low Cost

Microprocessors are available at low cost due integrated circuit technology which will reduce the cost of a computer system

  • High Speed

Microprocessors chips can work at very high speed due to the technology involved in it is capable of executing millions of instructions per second

  • Small Size

A microprocessor is assembled in a very less footprint this will reduce the size of the entire computer system  

  • Versatile

Microprocessor is very versatile the same chip can be used for a number of applications by simply changing the program

  • Low Power Consumption

Microprocessor generally manufactured using metal oxide semiconductor technology in which MOSFETs (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) are working in saturation and cut off modes so the power consumption is very low compared to other

  • Less Heat Generation

Semiconductor devices won’t emit that much heat as compared to vacuum tube devices

  • Reliable

Microprocessor are very reliable failure rate is very less as semiconductor technology is used

  • Portable

Microprocessors are made of device portable due to the small size and low power consumption.

Main Terms Used in Microprocessors

Here are some common terms that we will use in microprocessor field.


A bus is a set of conductors intended to transmit data address or control information to different element in a microprocessor usually a microprocessor will have 3 types of buses: Address bus, Data Bus , Control bus  and address bus an 8-bit processor will be using 8-bit wide bus

Instruction Set

Instruction set is the group of commands that a microprocessor can understand so instruction set is an interface between hardware and software an instruction commands the processor to switch relevant transistors for doing  processing in data for Like . ADD A, B; is used to add two numbers stored in the register A and B

Word Length

In the internal data bus of a processor has Word length is the number of bits , a processor can process at a time for like- An 8-bit registers and will do 8-bit data processing at a time for doing higher bite (32-bit  , 16-bit ) operations it will split that into a series of 8-bit operations

Cache Memory

Cache Memory is integrated into the processor so the processor can access data in the cache memory more quickly than from a regular RAM it is also known as CPU memory cache memory is used to store data or instructions that are frequency referenced by the software or program during the operation so it will increase the overall speed and it is a random access memory

     Clock Speed

           Microprocessors use a clock signal to control the rate at which instructions are    Executed synchronize other internal components and to control the data transfer     them so clock speed refers to the speed at which a microprocessor executes instruction’s it is usually measurers  (MHz) gigahertz (GHz ) etc.

Classification of Microprocessors

Based on Word Length

Hope you read about word length above so based on the length of a processor we can have 8-bit, 16-bit , 32-bit and 64-bit processors

RISC-Reduced Instruction Set Computer

RISC is a type of microprocessor architecture which uses small general purpose and highly optimized instructions found in others RISC offer high performance over its opposing architecture CISC in a processor execution of every instruction that require a special circuit to load and process the data so by reducing instructions the processor will be using simple circuits and faster in operation

  • Simple instruction set
  • Larger program
  • Consists of large number of registers
  • Simple processor circuitry (small number of transistor)
  • More RAM usage
  • Fixed length instructions
  • Simple addressing modes
  • Generally  fixed number of clock cycles for executing one instruction

CISC-Complex Instruction Set Computer

CISC is the opposing microprocessor architecture for RISC it is made to reduce the number of instructions per program ignoring the number of cycles per instruction so complex and slower in operation

This architecture is actually made to reduce the cost of memory by reducing the program length

  • Complex instruction set
  • Smaller program
  • Complex processor circuitry (more number of transistors)
  • Little RAM usage
  • Variable length instructions
  • Variety of addressing modes
  • Variable number of clock cycles for each instruction

Special Purpose Processors

There are some processor which are designed to handle some specific functions

  • DSP – digital signal processors
  • Coprocessors –It is processors used along with a main processor (8087 math-coprocessor used with 8086)
  • Input  / output processors
  • Transporter – transistor computer :

Microprocessor with its own memory


  • Intel 4004 – the first microprocessor
  • Intel 8085
  • Intel Pentium 4
  • Intel core i7
  • AMD Athlon

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