What is Microprocessor & It’s Working?

In this tutorial we are going to learn about what is Microprocessor & It’s Working?

Microprocessor – It is types of CHIP, this is made of semiconductor, It is made of Silicon semiconductor.  It is combination of transistors in single IC. Microprocessor has three parts:

  1. Input: It is used to give the input data to the microprocessor.
  2. Output: It is used to provide the result of calculation.
  3. Memory: It is used to store the data.

It is brain of microcomputer, why it is called as brain of microcomputer because everything is done by processor itself just like human brain suppose that if our brain is dead then we can’t do anything in the same way processor is brain of microcomputer, It is single chip which have inbuilt of memory , input and output , clock  etc.

  • It is a single chip which is capable of processing the data.
  • It control all components of computer like monitor , memory , input and output , some external devices etc. means it control all parts of computer.
  • It executes the segment of instructions that is data given by user that is execute the instruction by microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor fetch the decode & executes the instruction, It means fetch the instruction after the decode mean when give the instruction like we give the just like give English statement C, C++ but processor can’t handle this directly because it can read only binary 1 or 0. Then machine language converts assembly language which is handling by processor.

Evolutions of Microprocessor –

  1. Intel 4004 (2300 combination transistors )
  2. Intel 8008 (3500 combination transistors)
  3. Intel 8080 (4000 combination transistors)
  4. Zilog Z80 (6000 combination transistors)
  5. M 6800 (8500 combination transistors )

Note – Above all microprocessor have 4 bits.

  • Intel 8085 this first microprocessor which have 8 Bits.
  • Intel 8086 this first microprocessor which have 16 Bits.

After that many companies develop many types of microprocessor with more bits and fast speed.

Types of Microprocessor –

Microprocessor has three categories.

  1. SIZE – It is category by Size it mean how many bits of microprocessor like that – 4 Bit, 8 Bit, 16 Bit , 32 Bit and 64 Bit it means this is category of microprocessor which are depend of  Bit size. And 4 bit = 1 nibble and 8 Bits = 1 bytes
  2. APPLICATION – Where microprocessor is applied this is called application of microprocessor and It is divide in three parts like – 1. Special Purpose 2. General Purpose and 3. Microcontroller Special Purpose – it means is use in research like DRDO, ISRO and NASA more research centre. General Purpose – It is basically use in simple computer and laptop.
  3. Microcontroller – this is very important part of electronics which is use in all types of Automatically & IOT based devices.
  4. SPEED  & BANDWIDTH – this types are category are depend on speed , Microprocessor speed  measure in MHZ. it means pulse instruction per cycle this is called Speed of microprocessor.

Microprocessor typically consists of:

  1. Register- It is temporary storage location for performing instruction & data.
  2. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) – It perform all arithmetic & logic operation it means all mathematically instruction done by ALU.
  3. Timing and control unit – Keep all parts of system like ALU, register , Memory and input & output device working together in right time segment.

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